Adjectives. Types of Adjectives

1. What is an Adjective and its Functions

An adjective is used with a noun, describing or improving it. It has the function to modify the noun, to complement it, or to support it within the phrase. With their help, we can describe the subject or the object in the sentence, enriching the content and increasing comprehension.



2. Different Kinds of Adjectives



According to their purpose, adjectives in English are of many types. Each type will be used to differentiate the noun in the sentence from another noun, offering it a particular description. Here are the adjective types.



2.1. Descriptive Adjectives

Also known as adjectives of quality, the descriptive adjectives are the most common used in the English language. When describing a noun, they will make reference to state, quality or action. Here are examples of these adjectives: dangerous, big, small, white, cold, warm etc. The following examples will show you the use of these adjectives.

It was a cold morning today.

A dangerous storm is coming. 

She was wearing a white blouse.



2.2. Adjectives of Quantity

As the name suggests it, the adjectives of quantity show the amount of the noun, answering questions like “how much?” or “how many?”. Examples of these adjectives are: much, many, less, three, four, ten, etc. Below you will find some examples of using these adjectives. 

I had many papers to write.

Mother bought three apples and ten eggs. 

I have less worries than last year.



2.3. Demonstrative Adjectives

The demonstrative adjectives shows how far or close the noun is in comparison with the person that is speaking, and whether the noun is in a singular or plural form. These adjectives may also indicate a particular fact of the noun. Here are some examples of demonstrative adjectives: that, this, those, these. Look at the following sentences and see how they are used. 

This cat is big and that cat is small. 

Those shoes are mine.

Take these bags.



2.4. Possessive Adjectives

As the name tell us, the possessive adjectives show that the noun is in the possession of someone, or maybe something. It shows to whom or to what the noun belongs. Examples of such adjectives are: his, her, mine, yours, ours, their, my, its. The next sentences show the contextual use of possessive adjectives. 

My blouse is in the closet.

His friends are across the road.

The bike on the alley is yours.



2.5. Interrogative Adjectives

The interrogative adjectives are used with a noun with the purpose of asking a question. Examples of these adjectives are: what, where, which, how, whose. The next sentences are examples of how to use the interrogative adjectives.

Where is the ball?

Who is that girl?

What food do you prefer?



2.6. Coordinate Adjectives

These adjectives will appear in a row, one after another, and they will all modify the same noun. They enhance the description, adding more details. The coordinate nouns are separated in a sentence by commas or “and”. They can be adjectives of any previously mentioned group, as long as they are in connection with the noun. Here are some sentence examples of how to use coordinate adjectives.

The clouds that were approaching were black and large.

The blouse she received was red, short and pretty.

I ate a sweet and tasty cake.



2.7. Non-coordinate Adjectives

The non-coordinate adjectives will not require a comma or “and” in between them, because they are not related and have different functions. Also, you cannot change the order of these adjectives in the sentence, because it will no longer have a correct meaning. Here are some examples of non-coordinate adjectives sentences.

Where is the big sun hat? 

I wanted to buy a colorful beach dress.

The green lunch box is over there.

If you put comas or “and” between the two following adjectives, the sentence will lose its logic.



3. Degrees of Adjectives

Adjectives in English have three degrees.



3.1. Positive adjectives: beautiful, good, great, amazing, lucky etc.

Alice is a lucky girl.

My mother is an amazing person.

The beach is very beautiful.



3.2. Comparative adjectives: older, younger, greater, smaller, further, closer, happier, worse etc.

Mike is younger than Jake.

My aunt’s house is smaller than my house.

I am happier since I passed the exam.



3.3. Superlative adjectives: biggest, happiest, greatest, smallest, most beautiful, worst etc. 

I had the worst nightmare ever. 

I visited the most beautiful island in the Pacific.

Jake’s uncle is the greatest.

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